复旦生殖遗传与健康论坛-20200923期

复旦生殖遗传与健康论坛-20200923期

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刘光慧 研究员

报告摘要:
Age is the major risk factor for most chronic human diseases. As a consequence, “geroprotective” strategies are being pursued as a way to prevent and treat age-related disorders.

As we age, our stem cells undergo functional decay and exhaustion. This decline leads to compromised tissue regeneration, which in turn promotes organismal aging. Therapeutic approaches that promote tissue regeneration and repair could therefore potentially mitigate aging and its deleterious effects.

Currently, there are three main methods to promote tissue regeneration: (1) Supplement tissues with exogenous stem/progenitor cells; (2) Chemically stimulate in-situ stem cell expansion, differentiation, and/or somatic cell transdifferentiation; and (3) Rejuvenate endogenous stem cell pools with specific biological factors. In animal models, these methods can alleviate diverse aging syndromes, including neurodegeneration, vascular degeneration, myocardial infarction and osteoarthritis. Technological advances allow us to further improve these strategies to repair degenerating organs. For instance, genetically enhanced stem cells and vascular cells with improved efficacy and safety were recently generated by editing longevity genes and tumor suppressors. Approaches to activate tissue regeneration could also be optimized by targeting cellular senescence and regeneration pathways. Overall, engineering tissues and organs that resist aging would transform regenerative medicine, providing a potential “silver bullet” against chronic disease.

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